In June 1919, the Allies declared that war would resume if the German government did not sign the treaty they had accepted among themselves. Philipp Scheidemann`s government could not agree on a common position and Scheidemann himself resigned instead of declaring himself ready to sign the treaty. Gustav Bauer, the head of the new government, sent a telegram in which he declared his intention to sign the treaty if certain articles were withdrawn, including Articles 227, 230 and 231. (ii) In response, the Allies issued an ultimatum declaring that Germany should accept the treaty or face an Allied invasion of the Rhine within 24 hours. On 23 June, Bauer capitulated and sent a second telegram confirming that a German delegation would arrive shortly to sign the contract. [55] On 28 June 1919, the fifth anniversary of the assassination of Archduke François-Ferdinand (the immediate start of the war), the peace treaty was signed. [1] The treaty had clauses ranging from war crimes, from prohibiting the merger of the Republic of Germany with Germany without the agreement of the League of Nations, from freedom of navigation on major European rivers to the return of a Koran to the King of Hejaz. [n. 4] [n. 5] [n. 6] [n. 7] On June 28, 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, Archduke François Ferdinand of Austria, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. [4] This resulted in a rapid escalation of the July crisis, which led Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, followed by the entry of most European powers into World War I.

[5] Two alliances opposed each other, the central powers (led by Germany) and the Triple Agreement (led by Great Britain, France and Russia). Other countries that fought across Europe, as well as the Middle East, Africa and Asia, have raged. In 1917, two revolutions took place in the Russian Empire. The new Bolshevik government of Vladimir Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, which was very favourable to Germany. When Germany felt victory before the American armies were ready, it relocated its troops to the Western Front and tried to subdue the Allies.